The facial skin serves many roles in the human body. Therefore, it has been studied carefully over the years. Studies on the subject of facial skin help the development of skincare products and treatment of a variety of skin problems (rosacea, edema, wrinkles, acne, rashes, and more). It is important to be familiar with the structure of facial skin in order to treat it properly, and choose effective treatments.
Like the rest of the skin, facial skin is composed of three layers: the stratum corneum, the epidermis, and the dermis. Fat tissue beneath these layers is responsible for oily skin. For example, among those with oily skin or with a natural tendency to oiliness, this layer is thick and dense and its secretions cause oiliness of the epidermis.
The stratum corneum is composed of peeling dandruff, which is generally removed when the skin peels. These are dead cells that no longer serve any purpose in the body. There are a number of treatments aimed at reducing the number of cells that keratinize and die. This is especially true with regard to dry and sensitive skin and even in regard to minor stimuli (humidity, environmental damage, improper use of skin care products) that cause rapid keratinization of the upper epithelial layer.
The epidermis is composed of a number of layers: the stratum corneum, the stratum lucidum, the stratum granulosum, the stratum spinosum, and the stratum basale. Each layer is constructed of anucleated cells arranged in a number of rows. Epithelial cells can self-restore in a relatively short period of time, but there are also cosmetic treatments that can help this process in cases of disturbances. For example, in the case of dry and sensitive skin, moisturizing masks that speed the restoration of the epithelial layers are recommended. The epidermis of the skin is also responsible for the hue of the skin. The upper layers of the epidermis contain pigment that is used to determine the skin tone. The higher the amount of pigment, the darker the tone of the skin.
The dermis is situated underneath the epidermis, and represents the main layer of the skin. The dermis is composed of connective tissue, and is divided into two thick sub-layers: The papillary layer and the reticular layer. The first layer includes a high number of capillaries and nerve endings. These endings are stimulated during some of the treatments, in order to hasten the restoration process of the epidermis. The reticular layer contains a vast number of blood vessels and lymph nodes, nerve cells, hair follicles, and collagen fibers. This layer is the reason the facial skin looks firm and smooth.
The skin cell contains many components and materials, which are in a state of constant mutual influence. Each cell organelle - the cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, lysosomes, ribosomes, centrosome, the centrioles, and mitochondria - has its own role. Ribosomes produce protein, lysosomes are responsible for the digestion of nutrients that penetrate the epithelium, the centrosome is responsible for restoration, the centrioles constitute part of the cell's internal skeleton, the cell membrane enables contact with the environment, and the nucleus contains the hereditary information. Mitochondria provide energy to cell processes, such as "breathing", "nutrition" and restoration.
The skin’s structure has a huge impact on facial appearance. First and foremost, the structure determines the type of skin: dry, oily, sensitive, combined, or normal. Experts research the skin’s structure in order to develop skincare products that will have targeted effects. Additionally, knowledge about the structure of the dermis and epidermis enables the independent treatment of skin. Over the years, some of the internal processes become sluggish, cell restoration slows down, their replenishment is less effective, and the digestion of nutrients becomes increasingly less efficient. Therefore, the skin starts to require treatment that is more comprehensive. Basic knowledge of the skin structure and the processes occurring within the cells enables the proper selection of a skincare product, from the enormous variety available in the cosmetics market. As the result, the treatment is much more effective.
The cells should be nourished in order to enable their optimal functioning. Therefore, daily treatment should include simple steps of cleansing and nourishment. There are plenty of combined products suitable for this. Proper nourishment allows the skin to remain fresh, youthful, firm, and glowing over the years.
Vitamin A (Retinol) participates in the epithelialization of the tissues and, thereby, maintains the structural integrity of the epithelial tissues and regulates the restorative process. Vitamin A at a concentration of 0.025 – 0.3% is included in skincare products for dry and normal facial skin, aging skin, and oily skin with a tendency to acne.
Anti Acne Cream by HiLée
Vitamin F (combination of unsaturated fatty linoleic acid, alpha linolenic, arachidonic) is widely used in skincare products because of its ability to speed up the nutrition of the skin and, thereby, regulate the restoration processes and heat reception activities, reduce dryness, and increase the turgor pressure and skin elasticity. Studies indicate positive effect of vitamin F on the growth of elastic fibers and inflation of collagen fibers, the division and renewal of epidermal cells, and the accumulation of fatty acids, unsaturated fats, and glycosaminoglycan in the skin. Vitamin F at concentration of 3 - 7% is used for cleansing, moisturizing, and nourishing products, primarily to treat dry and aging facial skin.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) regulates the concentration of fats in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, accelerates blood and lymphatic circulation, accelerates the production of collagen in the skin, and reduces skin sensitivity. Vitamin E at a concentration of 0.02 – 0.4% is used in many cleansing, moisturizing, and nourishing products for the treatment of all skin types, usually in combination with other vitamins.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) belongs to a group of water-soluble vitamins, which are rarely used in preventative cosmetics, and can usually be consumed in the form of plant infusions and extracts. Vitamin C has a positive influence on the synthesis of melanin and collagen of the skin, as well as on the metabolism of most sugars and nucleic acids. It also reduces the skin’s sensitivity and the amount of pigment and is very effective in cases of skin aging.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the vitamin B group: B1 (thiamine), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cyanocobalamin), B13 (orotic acid). Vitamin-based products are recommended for dry skin to help regulate the metabolic processes.
There is a close physiological relationship between different vitamins. For example, there is a mutually-reinforcing effect between vitamins A and D, A and C, A and B, and more. Therefore, it is recommended to combine products that include vitamins, especially those that maintain the relationship that exists between the vitamins in nature.